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BOOK SUMMARY Throughout history, tribal groups have participated in nation-state wars. A review of the historical data in relation to the First and Second Indochina Wars reveals that the primary motivations for tribal participation is long-standing animosities with traditional enemies. Modern wars of national liberation and Maoist warfare theories have made certain tribal groups a target or liability. Warfare by proxy will only intensify indigenous tribal animosities. Under the communist system, specifically through the “parallel hierarchies” and the “front organizations,” traditional leadership will be undermined and replaced. Under the Western system, efforts are made to maintain the status quo concerning tribal leadership. In the case of Vietnam, the communist insurgency resulted in the assimilation of tribal minorities, whereas Western counter-insurgency practices resulted in a strong tribal separatist movement. The ultimate conclusion reached is that warfare by proxy produces far reaching disastrous consequences. Lessons learned from Vietnam can certainly be applied by the reader of this thesis to the current situation in Afghanistan.

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