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CALIFORNIA, The First 100 Years. 1769 - 1869.


Spain wanted a military presence in California to keep out the English, French and Russians all of whom were beginning to pose threats to Spain‘s expansion to uncivilized California.


Four Spanish Exhibitions, left New Spain (today‘s Mexico) in 1769, two by land and two by sea bound for San Diego. More than one third participating lost their lives on these expeditions due to scurvy and starvation.


The survivors were expected to meet in San Diego to create Missions (education centers) and Presidios (Forts) to civilize the Indians at both San Diego and Monterey.


Travel to California for the next 100 years by land or by sea was a high risk, dangerous trip for anyone. Indians attacked the settlers who crossed the plains with covered wagons. Weather and the severe elements took many more lives in the hot deserts and freezing High Sierras.


California’s First 100 Civilized Years were governed by Spain, then Mexico and finally The United States climaxing with Statehood as our Nations 31st State, the Gold Rush and the Golden Spike.

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