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This comprehensive ebook provides authoritative information and practical advice from the nation's health experts about Buerger's Disease (Thromboangiitis Obliterans). Starting with the basics, and advancing to detailed patient-oriented and physician-quality information, the 21st Century Sourcebook series gives empowered patients, families, caregivers, nurses, and physicians the information they need to understand this autoimmune disorder.

Subjects and topics covered include symptoms, outlook, causes, who is at risk, diagnosis, tests and procedures, treatment, research, clinical trials, and more.

This edition includes our exclusive Guide to Leading Medical Websites with updated links to 81 of the best sites for medical information, which let you quickly check for updates from the government and the best commercial portals, news sites, reference/textbook/non-commercial portals, and health organizations.

Buerger’s disease affects blood vessels in the arms and legs. Blood vessels swell, which can prevent blood flow, causing clots to form. This can lead to pain, tissue damage, and even gangrene (the death or decay of body tissues). In some cases, amputation may be required. The most common symptoms of Buerger’s disease are: Pale, red, or bluish hands or feet; Cold hands or feet; Pain in the hands and feet; may be severe; Pain in the legs, ankles, or feet when walking—often located in the arch of the foot; Skin changes, painful sores, or ulcers on the hands or feet. Almost everyone with Buerger’s disease smokes cigarettes. However, Buerger’s disease can occur in people who use other forms of tobacco, like chewing tobacco. People who smoke 1 1/2 packs a day or more are most likely to develop Buerger's disease. Researchers are working to understand how tobacco increases the risk for Buerger's disease. One idea is that chemicals in tobacco irritate the lining of the blood vessels and cause them to swell.

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