Until 1944 U-boats operated as submersible torpedo craft, but, as a result of successful Allied anti-submarine measures, the Germans developed high-speed U-boats capable of continuously submerged operations. These submarines became benchmark of the post-war Russian submarine challenge. Royal Navy doctrine was developed by professional anti-submarine officers, and based on the well-tried combination of defensive and offensive anti-submarine measures that had stood the press of time since 1917, notwithstanding considerable technological change. This consistent and holistic view of anti-submarine warfare has not been understood by most of the subsequent historians of these anti-submarine campaigns, and provides an essential and new insight into how Cold War (and indeed modern) anti-submarine warfare is conducted.
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