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Synopsis

The need for novel antibiotics is greater now than perhaps anytime since the pre-antibiotic era. Indeed, the recent collapse ofmany pharmaceutical antibacterial groups, combined with theemergence of hypervirulent and pan-antibiotic-resistant bacteriahas severely compromised infection treatment options and led todramatic increases in the incidence and severity of bacterialinfections.

This collection of reviews and laboratory protocols gives thereader an introduction to the causes of antibiotic resistance, thebacterial strains that pose the largest danger to humans (i.e.,streptococci, pneumococci and enterococci) and the antimicrobialagents used to combat infections with these organisms. Some newavenues that are being investigated for antibiotic development arealso discussed. Such developments include the discovery of agentsthat inhibit bacterial RNA degradation, the bacterial ribosome, andstructure-based approaches to antibiotic drug discovery.

Two laboratory protocols are provided to illustrate differentstrategies for discovering new antibiotics. One is a bacterialgrowth inhibition assay to identify inhibitors of bacterial growththat specifically target conditionally essential enzymes in thepathway of interest. The other protocol is used to identifyinhibitors of bacterial cell-to-cell signaling.

This e-book — a curated collection from eLS, WIREs, andCurrent Protocols — offers a fantastic introduction to thefield of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance for students orinterdisciplinary collaborators.

Table of Contents:

Introduction

Antibiotics and the Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance
eLS
Jose L Martinez, Fernando Baquero

Antimicrobials Against Streptococci, Pneumococci andEnterococci
eLS
Susan Donabedian, Adenike Shoyinka

Techniques & Applications

RNA decay: a novel therapeutic target in bacteria
WIREs RNA
Tess M. Eidem, Christelle M. Roux, Paul M. Dunman

Antibiotics that target protein synthesis
WIREs RNA
Lisa S. McCoy, Yun Xie, Yitzhak Tor

Methods

High-Throughput Assessment of Bacterial Growth Inhibition byOptical Density Measurements
Current Protocols Chemical Biology
Jennifer Campbell

Structure-Based Approaches to Antibiotic Drug Discovery
Current Protocols Microbiology
George Nicola, Ruben Abagyan

Novel Approaches to Bacterial Infection Therapy by Interferingwith Cell-to-Cell Signaling
Current Protocols Microbiology
David A. Rasko, Vanessa Sperandio

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