21st Century Essential Guide to the Keystone XL Pipeline from Canada to the Gulf Coast: Risks to the Environment and Water Resources
Gain a complete understanding of the important controversy about the Keystone XL pipeline project with this flowing-text e-book containing a collection of official documents - including significant excerpts from the Final Environmental Impact Statement - on the risks of the pipeline.
TransCanada Keystone Pipeline, LP (Keystone) filed an application in 2008 for a Presidential Permit with the Department of State to build and operate the Keystone XL Project. The proposed Keystone XL Project consists of a 1,700-mile crude oil pipeline and related facilities that would primarily be used to transport Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin crude oil from an oil supply hub in Alberta, Canada to delivery points in Oklahoma and Texas. The proposed Project would also be capable of transporting U.S. crude oil to those delivery points. The proposed project could transport up to 830,000 barrels per day and is estimated to cost $7 billion. As part of the Presidential Permit review process, the Department has prepared an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) consistent with the National Environment Policy Act (NEPA). The issuance of a Final EIS is one step in the review process and does not represent a final decision on the permit application. The Department of State plans to make a determination by the end of this year.
The proposed Keystone XL pipeline would consist of approximately 1,711 miles of new 36-inch-diameter pipeline, with approximately 327 miles of pipeline in Canada and 1,384 miles in the U.S. The proposed Project would connect to the northern and southern ends of the existing Cushing Extension of the Keystone Oil Pipeline System.
The proposed Keystone XL Project would primarily transport crude oil extracted from the oil sands areas in Alberta, Canada. Oil sands (which are also referred to as tar sands) are a combination of clay, sand, water, and bitumen, which is a material similar to soft asphalt. Bitumen is extracted from the ground by mining or by injecting steam underground to heat the bitumen to a point where it liquefies and can be pumped to the surface. Bitumen is treated in several ways to create crude oil suitable for transport by pipeline and refining. The types of Canadian crude oil that would be transported by the proposed Project would primarily consist of synthetic crude oil and diluted bitumen. Synthetic crude oil is produced from bitumen using refining methods - a process termed upgrading - that in general converts bitumen into lighter liquid hydrocarbons. In other words, the bitumen is converted into a crude oil similar to conventional crude oil.
This is a privately authored news service and educational publication of Progressive Management. Our publications synthesize official government information with original material - they are not produced by the federal government. They are designed to provide a convenient user-friendly reference work to uniformly present authoritative knowledge that can be rapidly read, reviewed or searched. Vast archives of important data that might otherwise remain inaccessible are available for instant review no matter where you are. This e-book format makes a great reference work and educational tool. There is no other reference book that is as convenient, comprehensive, thoroughly researched, and portable - everything you need to know, from renowned experts you trust. For over a quarter of a century, our news, educational, technical, scientific, and medical publications have made unique and valuable references accessible to all people. Our e-books put knowledge at your fingertips, and an expert in your pocket!
- Progressive Management, October 2011
- Download options:
- EPUB 2 (DRM-Free)
You can read this item using any of the following Kobo apps and devices: