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Synopsis

The Quran, according to Islam, is the very word of Allah, revealed through Gabriel to the prophet Mohammed.  The language of the Quran is Arabic, the dialect belonging to the Quraish tribe, the tribe entrusted with the city of Mecca, and the tribe Mohammad’s family was a part of.

The Quran is divided into 114 chapters, called surah(s), these chapters, with the exception of the first are generally arranged according to length.  Surah 2, the Cow is the longest and the last ones the shortest.

            The chapters of the Quran also have a title derived from a word within the text, these titles do not necessarily have a link to the subject manner in the surah, from which it is derived.  The titles have names such as “The Cow” (Surah 2), “Women” (Surah 4), “The Bee” 16 (Surah 16).

            In the beginning of the Surah is a short introduction prayer, the Basmalah, which says “In the name of God, the Compassionate the Merciful”.  This prayer is at the start of every surah except the ninth.

            The verses of the Surah, called āyah vary in size (pl, ayat) , the earliest are the shortest, the longer Surahs have longer verses with less rhyme. The Quran, in the Arabic is written in rhyme prose, saj, a style similar to the prose used by the kāhins, or soothsayers of Arabia.

            The Quran is presented as the speech of God (Allah), who is speaking, first person through Gabriel to Mohammad. Allah refers to himself as “We” and Mohammed is the one told, “to say”. Mohammed,  directed to tell the message Allah has given him is Allah’s final messenger to the world, the “seal of the prophets”. Here is an example from the Quran Surah 2, the Cow.

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